On the basis of above assumptions, it is concluded that the management is held responsible for organising resources, for the firm, with the aim of economic gain. In a nutshell, we can say that motivation is a means of inspiring people to intensify their desire and willingness to discharge their duties efficiently and to co-operate for the achievement of common objectives. At the two less effective sites i. The Hawthorne Effect Through a series of experiments in the late 1920s, Elton Mayo developed the Hawthorne Effect. Never threaten or go over their heads if you are dissatisfied or you'll be in big trouble afterwards and life will be a lot more difficult. People can focus on the objectives they pursue through self-direction and self-control.
Managers usually strive to find ways to motivate their staff. There are likely departments within your organization which contain highly motivated and reliable people, while other departments may need to be watched closely to ensure they are heading in the right direction. In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc. An organization with this style of management is made up of several levels of supervisors and managers who actively intervene and micromanage the employees. I used theory x on one of them and Y on the other. According to Theory X, people would work hard in such a setting only because they were coerced to do so. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
His theories divided employees into two categories. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. The soft approach results in a growing desire for greater reward in exchange for diminished work output. Theory-Y assumptions are: 1 physical and mental effort are natural and most people depending on the work environment find work to be a source of , 2 they generally, on their own , self-control, self-direction, , and ingenuity in pursuit of and collective company goals, 3 they either seek responsibility or learn to accept it willingly, and that 4 their full potential is not tapped in most organizations. Initially, they will focus on hobbies, committee and voluntary work, but eventually this could result in a hunt for another job. McGregor Theory X and Theory Y. However, all too often, managers assume that all people have similar needs.
With such an unpredictable, fast-changing task as communications technology research, there were numerous approaches to getting the job done well. Behavioral psychologists have conducted research investigating why people behave the way they do. That is, each approach is effective in some cases but not in others. Is your team properly motivated, and what it is that motivates them in the first place? This allows the individual to receive either a direct reward or a reprimand, depending on the outcome's positive or negative nature. Under Theory Z management, not only do workers have a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers, they also develop a sense of order, discipline, and a moral obligation to work hard.
As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. They described supervision in the laboratory as being very participatory. Further, they must be monitored, persuaded, rewarded and punished, or else they will remain idle. An organization with this style of management encourages participation and values individuals' thoughts and goals. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. Our answer to these questions is that we do not think there are any single cause-and-effect relationships, but that these factors are mutually interrelated. These managers think that external control is clearly appropriate for dealing with unreliable, irresponsible and immature people.
Conversely, the managers at Hartford, the low-performing plant, were in a less formalized organization with more participation in decision making, and yet they were not as highly motivated like the Akron managers. They blame failure on the external environment. From the very beginning, when the human organisations were established, various thinkers have tried to find out the answer to what motivates people to work. If you have any questions regarding this policy, or your dealings with our website, please contact us at sales at psychometric-success. The art of achieving this objective is never cut and dry. Two distinct sets of that managers, in , have about their employees and which often turn out to be self-fulfilling prophesies. See for example Paul R.
How much effort an employee will put in a task is determined by two factors- i Value of reward and ii Perception of effort-reward probability. Many of the principles of Theory Y are widely accepted by different types of organization that value and motivate active participation. Safety makes up the second level and belonging the third. Disclaimer: Reliance on this material and any related provision is at your sole risk. Employees additionally tend to take full responsibility for their work and do not need close supervision to create a quality product. The task at Akron had already been clearly defined and that definition had, in a sense, been incorporated into the automated production flow itself. The Japanese had discovered something that was giving them the competitive edge.
Douglas McGregor expressed his views of human nature in two sets of assumptions. He postulated that most workers do not enjoy the work they do and only perform when given the direct reward of monetary payment. In this article, we are going to talk about the major differences between Theory X and Theory Y. People generally tend to take credit themselves when things go well. Due to these assumptions, Theory X concludes the typical workforce operates more efficiently under a hands-on approach to management. Implications for managers The major managerial implication of the Contingency Theory seems to rest in the task-organization-people fit.
According to this theory, management must firmly intervene to get things done. So to say, there may be overlapping in need hierarchy. Managers can help this process by becoming more aware of what psychological needs seem to best fit the tasks available and the organizational setting, and by trying to shape personnel selection criteria to take account of these needs. There are three main elements in this model. Esteem Needs: These needs refer to self-esteem and self-respect.