Brooke in The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. Although Gregory is remembered as a generous donor and friend of the needy, his biographers record that he left the papal treasury nearly bankrupt. She waged a number of wars against Henry between 1080 and 1106. His writings treat mainly of the principles and practice of Church government. I Henry, king by the grace of God, do say unto thee, together with all our bishops: Descend, descend, to be damned throughout the ages. In effect, two territorial churches emerged in Italy because of many political divisions. The roots of this doctrine reach deep into the history of Latin Christianity, but from the mid-eleventh century the potential and the prerogatives of the Roman church gained increased attention as reform progressed.
Insolence Insolence: Impudence or rudeness. Both of these corruptions were symptomatic of the degree to which, during centuries of invasion and turmoil, the spiritual goals of the Church had been subordinated to family, proprietary, and political interests. Much of the reform thus far accomplished had been brought about mainly through the efforts of Gregory; all countries had felt the force of his will, the power of his dominant. It seems to have become widely current only in early-modern times; the adjective caelebs and its cognates are not common in classical or medieval Latin, and in post-Tridentine usage celibacy has overtones of discipline and legal state. But the passionate and headstrong king did not long abide by these sentiments. But there had often been gaps in the succession of western emperors, and it would never have occurred to Gregory to discard the sanction over the most powerful western king that imperial coronation at Rome gave.
However, after the absolution of Canossa, Henry had reasserted himself. The fifty years before the First World War gave birth to three Life-and-Times biographies, the shortest with two volumes, the longest with seven. Friendship and patronage had thus accomplished what military strategy and imperial policies could not. Created a , shortly after Leo's accession, and appointed administrator of the , Hildebrand at once gave evidence of that extraordinary faculty for administration which later characterized his government of the Universal. As he himself afterwards admitted, it was with extreme reluctance that he crossed the Alps. The Istrians appealed to the emperor, threatening to ally with if Rome pressed conformity. At issue specifically were claims to authority in both secular and church matters in important cities in northern Italy, especially in Milan.
This was a tradition among kings and other people in authority, whose use of the plural meant that they saw themselves as representing their entire kingdom. The unusual form and special content of these texts has received much attention from historians, for contained therein is a series of strong statements asserting the superiority of ecclesiastical over secular authority, and the absolute authority of the Roman church and its bishop over all churches and bishops. His was a prophetic voice that echoed the three major prophetic books of the Old Testament — Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel — in fearlessly proclaiming to the world the righteousne ss of God as he saw it. Election was then a flexible term and should not be confused with the modern concept of democratic election. It was also under this pontificate that the law was enacted which transferred the papal election to the , thus withdrawing it from the nobility and people of Rome and diminishing German influence on the election. In general, Gregory insisted that canon law should be upheld, but he also ascribed to the pope alone the right to issue new laws if required by contemporary needs.
He followed up his decrees by sending into all quarters, fully empowered to depose immoral and. Peter, chief of the apostles, incline to us, I beg, thy holy ears, and hear me thy servant whom thou has nourished from infancy, and whom, until this day, thou hast freed from the hand of the wicked, who have hated and do hate me for my faithfulness to thee. He also demanded that newly-elected bishops take an oath of obedience and visit the Holy See. The son of a plain citizen, Bunicus or Bonizo, he came to Rome at an early age for his education; an uncle of his being abbot of the convent of St. From that perspective the events and the turmoil of his reign appear as outcroppings of a desire to continue the reforming work of his predecessors, and also to establish what he deemed to be the proper order of Christian society.
Roland of Parma informed the pope of these decisions, and he was fortunate enough to gain an opportunity for speech in the synod, which had just assembled in the Lateran church, and he delivered his message there announcing the dethronement. He pursued his studies in before eventuially returning to Rome with. By the early 1060s, he had become one of the most powerful figures in the papal administration and a prominent papal adviser. One of his teachers there was Archbishop Lawrence Laurentius of Amalfi, who was famed for his knowledge of both Greek and Latin, and the head of the was the archpriest John Gratian, the future Pope 1045—46. Gregory died a year later, but because the man who replaced him was judged an antipope a false claimant to the title of pope , official Church history holds that Gregory remained rightful pope until his death. It is proof of the popular faith in his qualifications that, although the circumstances of his election invited assault in 1073, no sort of attempt was then made to set up a rival pontiff. Among the methods he employed to break their power of resistance, the despatch of legates proved peculiarly effective.
He was of course a master of statecraft; he had pursued political ends with consummate skill, causing them to masquerade as requirements of religion; but he forgot that incitement to civil war, the preaching of rebellion, and the release of subjects from their oaths, were methods which must infallibly lead to moral anarchy, and tend, with justice, to stifle the confidence once felt in him. In the register, under March, 1075, appears a series of twenty-seven epigrammatic statements that were drafted by Gregory and his advisers the so-called Dictatus papae , perhaps as titles for a new collection where texts would have been presented from the canonical tradition to support each proposition. Gregory died in 'exile', in Salerno Cowdrey argues he was not, as usually supposed, bitter about it, on the ground that it was a kind of blessed martyrdom , while Henry campaigned on, his antipope Clement installed in Rome. Cowdrey shows they were of little or no account. The terrified servants begged the demons to cast down as much of the city wall as lay in their way; thus they escaped punishment for their disobedience. The mode of his election was highly criticized by his opponents.
. Because of this link, the pope, and he alone, would always remain a true Christian, never deviating from the faith and always of the will of God. The latter on receipt of this news again entered on 21 March, 1084. Usurpation Usurpation: The act of seizing power unlawfully. Gregory, however, was rescued by the people of and on his release commanded the Germans to elect a new emperor, Rudolph, duke of. Through letters to , the Frankish queen who provided critical support for the reform of simony, and to other women, Gregory Catholic Frankish kingdoms.