Additional Sources Lanson, Gustave, Bossuet, : Arno Press, 1979. These ideas are expressed in his Trait é de la concupiscence 1693 and Maximes sur la com édie 1694. For one thing, to rebel disrupts the unity of the state and leads to civil war: by far the most undesirable state of affairs. But even if he chooses Catholicism, it is a Catholicism where the Pope's authority is conditioned on the sovereign's say so. But the habitual quality of his style, for all that, remains, as we have said, imperious and authoritative, because it is in harmony with the nature of his mind, which demands first and foremost clearness, , and order. We may be permitted to call attention to the fact that this was only an honorary title, and one need not therefore conclude, as seems to have been done sometimes, that Bossuet took his seat, or voted, in, for instance, the Conseil des dépêches, which was the Council of Foreign Affairs or in the Conseil du Roi, which busied itself with the internal affairs of the kingdom.
He was the seventh child of B énigne Bossuet, a judge in the parliament of Dijon, and Madeleine Mochet. I'm a tired old man, and there's not much way I can protect my possessions from younger, stronger individuals. But, since, moreover, nothing happens to us which is not an effect of Will, therefore we ought always to see in whatever or unhappiness according to the worlds judgment may befall us only a chastisement, a trial, or a temptation, which it is for us to make a means either of or of damnation. The humble and the weak shall receive mercy, but the mighty shall be mightily tormented. Now you can believe whatever you want--but when it comes to public worship, you must conform. Readings in European History 2 vols.
So great is this majesty that it cannot reside in the prince as in its source; it is borrowed from God, who gives it to him for the good of the people, for whom it is good to be checked by a superior force. Thence go out the orders which cause the magistrates and the captains, the citizens and the soldiers, the provinces and the armies on land and on sea, to work in concert. Son obras maestras de elocuencia incomparables con cualquier otro ejemplo si no nos remontamos a la. Almost everyone else believed that a society should choose the right religion and stick to that or like Hobbes choose one religion, the religion of the sovereign, and stick to that. So we do something smart.
Almost by accident, he became one of the most important political thinkers ever to live. Le style des Oraisons funèbres est plus travaillé, plus achevé que celui des Sermons. O kings, exercise your power then boldly, for it is divine and salutary for human kind, but exercise it with humility. En , escribe su Discours sur l'histoire universelle Discurso sobre la historia universal , en el que, tras presentar un rápido resumen de los , busca las razones de los designios de para su. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Zur Entstehung spekulativ-universalistischer Geschichtsphilosophie zwischen Bayle und Kant.
He argues that religion is essential to the security of the commonwealth, and that therefore the sovereign has the right to determine what that religion will be. The royal power is absolute. Wars between countries were bad enough, but even worse sometimes were the civil wars within countries, civil wars made worse by religious division e. Defensor de la teoría del para justificar el de. Quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est; this was for Bossuet, in a manner, the absolute criterion of. Allí su fama de predicador lo condujo al obispado de y a la preceptura del Delfín 1671 Su vida estuvo llena de polémicas en defensa de la fe cristiana.
In 1681 he became bishop of Meaux. Majesty is the image of the grandeur of God in the prince. Were they better off as 100% Catholic country or as a nation constantly threatened by religious civil war? This conforms with the teaching of St. ? Glaube indes ja nicht, du würdest durch diese Hingabe in Untätigkeit, in eine Art Trägheit verfallen; wir wirken im Gegenteil um so mehr, als wir vom Geiste Gottes bewegt, angetrieben und belebt werden. Lastly, its third characteristic is its movement and lyric power.
And yet, there is a real weakness with Bossuet's argument. Well, were Frenchmen better off in the 16th and 17th century when they accepted the authority of their king, or when they rebelled against him? Destined for the Church, he received the tonsure at the age of eight and at 13 obtained a canonicate in the cathedral of Metz. It was Providence that, by means of and of its extension throughout the known , rendered not only possible but easy and almost , the conversion of the world to. Under divine-right theory, Bossuet maintained that it was not only unlawful but also a sin to rebel against the king. Not only is this the form of government God intends for us, it's the type of government that, if we think about it, we see we ought to desire.
Born and raised in Dijon, , Bossuet began his classical studies at the Jesuit College of Godrans in Dijon and completed his education at the College of in , where St. Obviously, Locke's ideas society allows considerably more freedom than that of Hobbes--freedom even to change the government if necessary. We behold kings seated upon the throne of the Lord, bearing in their hand the sword which God himself has given them. At first, one perceives in him only the orator, the greatest, perhaps, who has ever appeared in the greater than and greater than ; the only man whose name can be compared in eloquence with those of Cicero and of Demosthenes 1617-70. Die theologischen Voraussetzungen der Geschichtsphilosophie. Dans la même catégorie on peut ranger les Maximes et réflexions sur la comédie 1694 , véhémente condamnation, au nom de la morale chrétienne, des œuvres de théâtre.
Monarchy, then, is the form of government God intends for us. En ella, Bossuet recoge varias influencias: la del jesuita ; las de los y ; y la principal, de , a través de sus conferencias sobre la predicación en , a las que Bossuet asiste. Tanto las expresiones como los giros, movimientos, construcción y armonía, son propios suyos. The , on the other hand, although they had no adversary more moderate than he, had none formidable; and when some startling conversion, like that of Turenne, took place, the or the blame of it was laid upon the Abbé Bossuet. You are endowed with it from without.