Nearly eighteen months passed before he finally came to terms with the Pope; he evaded the extremity of submission, making a pretext for delay out of the expedition to Ireland, of which we shall presently speak further. He was educated first at Merton priory, then in a City of London school, and finally at Paris. In Ireland, reputedly bestowed upon him by Pope , Henry allowed an expedition of barons from South Wales to establish Anglo-Norman supremacy in Leinster 1169 , which the King himself extended in 1171. Just before one battle Richard rode down the Saracen line and boldly called for any one to step forth and fight him alone. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and was kept chronically short of money by Henry. Eleanor was the Duchess of Aquitaine, a land in the south of France, and was considered beautiful, lively and controversial, but had not borne Louis any sons.
His plan did not have the desired result, however, as Becket promptly changed his lifestyle, abandoned his links to the King and portrayed himself as a staunch protector of church rights. Furious, the King summoned Beckett to appear before a Great Council held at Northampton Castle on 8th October, to answer charges of having contempt for Royal authority. Meanwhile, John of Oxford had returned to England from a mission to Rome, and was proclaiming that the legates were to depose Becket, and supposedly showed papal letters confirming this to Foliot. Depiction of Thomas Becket being enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury 6 He stood up for the church leading to disagreements with King Henry After becoming archbishop, Becket stood up for the church in its disagreements with the king and this led to a long quarrel between the two. In many parts of the country the fighting had caused serious devastation, although some other areas remained largely unaffected. He went on to initiate a number of legal reforms in the Assizes of Clarendon and Northampton. Meanwhile, Henry had delegated much of the everyday business of the English Church to Foliot, who although supportive of the king was no compliant supplicant, and was known as a supporter of papal positions.
Becket then secured aid from the king of France, who offered a sanctuary at Sens. In 1186, Philip Augustus demanded that he be given custody of Geoffrey's children and Brittany, and insisted that Henry order Richard to withdraw from Toulouse, where he had been sent with an army to apply new pressure on Philip's uncle, Raymond. He tried to forestall Becket's action by getting the Constitutions ratified by the pope, but the pope prevaricated. Beckett was on his way to Vespers when they approached him with a message that the King desired that he should report to Winchester to account for his actions. Things did not turn out the way Henry wanted. The papacy intervened and, probably as Henry had planned, the two kings were encouraged to sign a non-aggression treaty in September 1177, under which they promised to undertake a joint crusade. Meanwhile, Henry's position in the south of France continued to improve, and by 1173 he had agreed to an alliance with , the , which betrothed Henry's son John and Humbert's daughter Alicia.
He made himself agreeable to all around him, and his biographers attest that he led a chaste life—in this respect uninfluenced by the king. Henry's timing was influenced by several factors, including encouragement from Pope Alexander, who saw the opportunity to establish papal authority over the. He began to take a more conciliatory tone with Becket but, when this failed, had Young Henry crowned anyway by the Archbishop of York. His loyalty to the King turned into an … immobile trust and love for God, and his great mind was now a property of the Church. Pleas brought to feudal courts could be delayed or altogether frustrated.
Henry, however, felt that this position deprived him of the ability to govern effectively, and also undercut law and order in England. Stephen agreed to a after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. So great was the terror inspired everywhere in the Holy Land by the name of Richard that Moslem mothers are said to have made their children quiet by threatening to send for the English king. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would later come to be called the. Restoring Anglo-Norman supremacy in Wales proved harder, and Henry had to fight two campaigns in and in 1157 and 1158 before the Welsh princes and submitted to his rule, agreeing to the pre-civil war borders. The legal argument was complex at the time and remains contentious.
In the aftermath of the Toulouse episode, Louis made an attempt to repair relations with Henry through an 1160 peace treaty: this promised Henry the lands and the rights of his grandfather, Henry I; it reaffirmed the betrothal of Young Henry and Margaret and the Vexin deal; and it involved Young Henry giving homage to Louis, a way of reinforcing the young boy's position as heir and Louis's position as king. The coronation drove the pope to allow Becket to lay an on England as punishment, and the threat of an interdict forced Henry to negotiate with Becket in July 1170. In feudal courts the trial by battle could be avoided by the establishment of a concord, or fine. Becket was induced to promise to accept the customs; but not without justification he repudiated the king's view of what those customs were. He was made a saint in 1173, and his grave at Canterbury became a popular shrine, much visited as part of a pilgrimage.
Stephen, however, fell ill with a and died on 25 October 1154, allowing Henry to inherit the throne rather sooner than had been expected. Thomas continued to claim that he was loyal to Henry above all others except God, which incensed the hothead, impetuous, arrogant king to no end. First, Henry had to deal vigorously with the mess, meyhem and ruin left by the disastrous previous reign and civil wars. Henry was not a popular king and few expressed much grief on news of his death. Henry presented himself as the legitimate heir to Henry I and commenced rebuilding the kingdom in his image. Major baronial revolts broke out in England, Brittany, Maine, Poitou and. The English people quickly paid the ransom and Richard was freed.
Henry's later childhood, probably from the age of seven, was spent in Anjou, where he was educated by Peter of Saintes, a noted of the day. It was then that the rift with the king began; Henry wanted to use Beckett in his new role as Primate to further help him dilute and weaken the independence and affluence of the Church in England. The final straw was Henry's decision to give his youngest son John three major castles belonging to Young Henry, who first protested and then fled to Paris, followed by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey; Eleanor attempted to join them but was captured by Henry's forces in November. Quarrel with Henry Good relations between Thomas and Henry were now at an end; the archbishop was summoned to trial by the king on a point of feudal obligation. Henry harassed Becket's associates in England, and Becket religious and secular officials who sided with the king.
Henry's father advised him to come to terms with Louis and peace was made between them in August 1151 after mediation by. At the bottom line, he was forced to give in on the problem of criminous clerks, and this fundamental concession would create problems between Church and state right down to the Reformation. Afterwards he showed great remorse and paid penance, which showed he was really guilty over what happ … ened. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, however, had major long-term consequences. Louis's alliance was joined by Henry's younger brother, , who rose in revolt, claiming that Henry had dispossessed him of his inheritance. Louis, however, married his sister to Raymond in an attempt to secure his southern frontiers; nonetheless, when Henry and Louis discussed the matter of Toulouse, Henry left believing that he had the French king's support for military intervention.
Initially Henry's strategy was to rule indirectly through proxies, and accordingly Henry supported 's claims over most of the duchy, partly because Conan had strong English ties and could be easily influenced. Further south Henry continued to apply pressure on Raymond of Toulouse: the King campaigned there personally in 1161, sent the against Raymond in 1164 and encouraged in his attacks. This was the most powerful religious position in England, the closet to the Pope that an Englishman could get. The struggle persisted until Henry successfully manipulated Becket into signing a document that reinstated the ancestral customs during a meeting in Clarendon. Philip's offer coincided with a crisis in the Levant. Henry returned to Anjou in either 1143 or 1144, resuming his education under , another famous academic.