But I would never counsel this before a single judge, unless every other resource was wanting. Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. It is the practice of some speakers, after having put forth a most elaborately finished exordium, to make such a to what follows, that they seem solely intent upon drawing attention to themselves. Other common, basic elements of a will are the identification of the executor s , naming of beneficiaries, listing of assets, and assignments of those assets to beneficiaries in the form of bequests. This, as most authors agree, is accomplished by making them friendly, attentive, and receptive, tho due regard should be paid to these three particulars throughout the whole of a speech. Not only is it the opening paragraph of the Will or Codicil, it is also the place where the Testator is identified and the Testator's intentions are made known. Your exordium was so singularly clear, that I did not understand you before.
Similarly, in the case of speeches, the exordium is prior in order to the narrative. It is of no significance to instruct them; they must be pleased. It will not be amiss, likewise, to remove any seeming obstruction. It is his notion of freedom, and at once the exordium and peroration of his eloquence. This is a feeble article of faith to begin with, but it helps to push my pen through this exordium and what now follows. From what has been said, it appears that different causes require to be governed by different rules; and five kinds of causes are generally specified, which are said to be, either honest, base, doubtful, extraordinary, or obscure. Whoever makes these reflections will know where he should naturally begin.
By the time I had finished this exordium, Melons had disappeared, as I fully expected. It is indeed difficult to find a medium in this respect, but the orator may so temper his manner as to speak with justness, and not with too great a show of art. The exordium clause also effectively lays out to the readers a few basic premises upon which the rest of the document is based. Undoubtedly many things are taken into the exordium which are drawn from other parts of the cause or at least are common to them, but nothing in either respect is better said than that which can not be said so well elsewhere. The major premise of the first argument is that the Emancipation Proclamation constituted a promise of freedom for Afro-Americans. The syllogism takes the form of a America consists of a promise of freedom, b the Negro in America still is not free, therefore, c America has defaulted on its promise.
The style of the exordium ought not to be like that of the argument proper and the narration, neither ought it to be finely spun out, or harmonized into periodical cadences, but, rather, it should be simple and natural, promising neither too much by words nor countenance. The exordium, or introduction, is that part of the discourse which is pronounced before the subject is entered upon. The proprietors have combined the capital and labor hinted at in my exordium. A modest action, also, devoid of the least suspicion of ostentation, will better insinuate itself into the mind of the auditor. As yet we are not favorably received by the auditors, their attention is not entirely held, but when once they conceive an esteem and are warmly inclined toward us, then is the time to hazard this liberty, especially when we enter upon parts the natural fertility of which does not allow the liberty of expression to be noticed amidst the luster spread about it.
The second, by giving hopes of being brief, and by having recourse to the means prescribed for making the judge attentive. The proprietors have combined the capital and labor hinted at in my exordium. By the time I had finished this exordium, Melons had disappeared, as I fully expected. Insinuation seems to be not less necessary when the opponent's action has pre-possest the minds of the judges, or when they have been fatigued by the tediousness of the pleading. All these particulars are seldom executed in the exordium. In the very first words of my speech, I am afraid that I am going to say something unbecoming to a speaker, and that I shall be obliged to neglect the first and most important duty of an orator. Other functions of introductions, according to Aristotle, include making the audience well disposed toward the rhetor and the issue and grabbing their attention.
It must be remembered, however, that nowhere is less allowance made than here for failing in memory or appearing destitute of the power of articulating many words together. What a plight I am in today! An immoderate length should be equally avoided, lest it appear, as some monsters, bigger in the head than in the rest of the body, and create disgust where it ought only to prepare. Identity of the person who has left the will. Your exordium was so singularly clear, that I did not understand you before. As Cicero says of himself, he is not unaware that some will find it strange that he, who for so many years had defended such a number of people, and had given no offense to anyone, should undertake to accuse Verres. An honest cause is sufficient of itself to procure favor.
Similarly, in the case of speeches, the exordium is prior in order to the narrative. To be so imprudent as to attack judges themselves, not openly, but in any indirect manner, would be most unwise. It may happen sometimes, too, that the judge is our enemy, or the opponent's friend. Theophrastus adds another kind of exordium, taken from the pleading of the orator who speaks first. Some add shameful, as a sixth kind, which others include in base or extraordinary. I seem to have come to play an orator's part before an utterly unsympathetic audience. The major premise of the second argument is that the American Founding as expressed in the and Constitution constituted such a promise.
In the exordium the orator ought to be more reserved, and ought only to throw out some hints of the sentiments of compassion he designs to excite in the minds of the judges; whereas in the peroration he may pour out all the passions, introduce persons speaking, and make the dead to come forth, as it were, out of their graves, and recommend to the judges the care of their dearest pledges. This rule has been recommended by all authors, and undoubtedly with good reason, but sometimes is altered by circumstances, because in certain causes the judges themselves require studied discourses, and fancy themselves thought mean of unless accuracy appears in thought and expression. Alias, too, including nicknames, should be included if it helps clarify the actual Testator. The exordium she had so carefully prepared during her walk was eluding her. The advocate for the other side may likewise furnish sufficient matter for an exordium. To proceed from one part to another, by some ingenious thought which disguises the transition, and to seek applause from such a studied exertion of wit, is quite of a piece with the cold and childish affectation of our declaimers.