New York: New York University Press, 1996, pp. The original manuscript is housed at the John Work Garrett Library of the Johns Hopkins University. Unfortunately, she provides much less nourishment for a historical treatment. She was imprisoned and later released by Samuel Conklin, but little to nothing is known about Tituba's life following her subsequent release. The Indian and English concepts of magic and evil resembled each other closely enough that the details of Tituba's story were reinterpreted and incorporated into the English framework of belief.
And she consistently makes assertions about Tituba's motivations that she does not prove--and couldn't prove if she tried. The full import of her confession would not be revealed until after she was questioned by the magistrates. Although the book isn't extremely long, it is a lot of information to take in. A collection of articles and selective primary sources that describes and analyzes the widespread fear of witches from the sixteen to the eighteenth centuries in Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, and the mainland British colonies. It is recorded that, in the 1670s, Samuel Parris purchased Tituba as a slave. Michael, Barbados, 1982 , 82-83; and Neville Connell, trans.
Reconstructing the life of the slave woman at the center of the notorious Salem witch trials, the book follows Tituba from her likely origins in South America to Barbados, forcefully dispelling the commonly-held belief that Tituba was African. Giles Corey was accused by the younger Ann Putnam, Mercy Lewis, Abigail Williams, Mary Walcott, and Elizabeth Hubbard and arrested on 18 April. A similar name, Tutuba, appears among the eighteenth-century maroons runaway African slaves of Guiana, who absorbed local Indians during the formative years of their society. Upon his death, a friend wrote in the Maryland Gazette, The death of this valuable and worthy gentleman is justly lamented. This confession, perceived as evidence of a diabolical conspiracy, was the central agent in the cataclysmic series of events that saw 19 people executed and over 150 imprisoned, including a young girl of 5. The list of accused outsiders included Mary Easty sister of Rebecca Nurse, one of the more respectable, elderly church members in the town , Sarah Wild, and Nehemiah Abbott Jr. Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
Breslaw draws on Native American, African, South American, and African-American sources, as well as the European and New England heritage, to illuminate the ways in which witchcraft in early America was an attempt to understand and control evil and misfortune in the New World. She de- scribed the Salem goodwives' familiars. Because Tituba lived in the Parris household, she could readily collect samples of Betty's and Abigail's urine. The details she provided regarding the clothing and physical appear- ance of the various specters not only increased Tituba's credibility as a witness but also distracted her questioners. She may well have been recalling some vestige of the folklore of her background. Witches of the Atlantic World takes us on a fascinating, occasionally chilling, tour of witchcraft in four continents. Pope, Goodwives Bibber and Good- all, Mary Walcott, and the original three girls.
The uniquely multicultural nature of life on a seventeenth-century Barbadan sugar plantation defined by a mixture of English, American Indian, and African ways and folklore indelibly shaped the young Tituba's world and the mental images she brought with her to Massachusetts. Tituba's testimony contained some significant deviations from Puritan concepts. But she also assumes that Tituba deliberately and consciously tailored her testimony to give the magistrates what they wanted to hear, and that she equally deliberately constructed it as a subversive and subtle attack on her master, Samuel Parris. The story told by the girls was elaborated by the accused, who, for a variety of reasons, confessed to prac- ticing witchcraft and participating in a diabolical alliance. In the century following she was gradually transformed into an African. Abigail Williams against Tituba and Rebecca Nurse 400 -- 47.
By bridging the gap between her syncretic notions and the Puritan concept of evil, these reformulations, in turn, heightened the sense of impending doom surrounding the witch-hunt and propelled it into new channels. Even without the other problems which I'll get to in a moment , I would disagree with this thesis; I think the crucial moment is when the adult authority figures asked the afflicted girls who had bewitched them and accepted their answers as unquestionable truth. Therefore manipulating one substance would affect the other. So I disagree with the argument. The man had not told Tituba who had made the other seven. Breslaw argues that Tituba's confession to practicing witchcraft clearly reveals her savvy and determined efforts to protect herself by actively manipulating Puritan fears.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. I am also going to have to agree that Tituba was a South American Indian and was not from India and there are documents that Elaine Breslaw shows in her book that Tituba was a slave on a plantation in Barbados along with her husband John Indian, who were both bought by Parris and taken to Salem. Sarah Osborne died in prison, Sarah Good was hanged on July 19th and Tituba was left free. A few studies put more emphasis on intellectual analysis: Richard Godbeer, The Devil's Dominion: Magic and Reli- gion in Early New England New York, 1992 ; Larry D. I get my information from Nash, The American People, fourth edition. In his study of pre-1692 incidents John Demos finds four women accused to every mans7 On the other hand, of the identifiable accused in 1692, the ratio was fewer than three to one 104 women and 40 men. The author emphasizes the inextricably linked worlds of the Caribbean and the North American colonies, illustrating how the Puritan worldview was influenced by its perception of possessed Indians.
By incorporating Africans and native Americans into a story that normally deals only with Europeans at home and in the colonies , Breslaw opens new approaches to a familiar but always fascinating subject. Upham, Salem Witchcraft, z vols. In her mind that blood oath may have been a remnant of the memory of West Indian practices, of the sealing of compacts with blood among Africans or of the holding of the color red as a talisman against sickness and disease among Indian~? And when she talks about the confessing witches using Tituba's testimony, it is always as if they were in conscious control of a sophisticated strategy of resistance. Tituba's credibility to her Salem audience was enhanced by her iden- tification as an American Indian whose culture had long been associated with demonic power? A few days later Roger Toothaker of Billerica was taken into custody. Tituba alluded to other apparent dream states. And Breslaw is particularly inconsistent on the historians' bugbear : the nature of the participants' belief in witchcraft. University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
A landmark contribution to women's history and early American history, Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem sheds new light on one of the most painful episodes in American history, through the eyes of its most crucial participant. Hamilton also founded in 1745. Advice of the Clergy 407 -- D. Featuring primary documents as well as scholarly interpretations, Witches of the Atlantic World builds upon information regarding both Christian and non-Christian beliefs about possession and the demonic. Of even greater significance, Tituba supplied the evidence of a satanic presence legally necessary to launch a witch-hunt. Deliverance Hobbs against Bridget Bishop 403 -- 49.
Hamilton died on May 11, 1756, childless, leaving all his possessions to his widow, Margaret Dulany Hamilton. Did they represent an appeal to her guardian spirit for assistance? This confession, perceived as evidence of a diabolical conspiracy, was the central agent in the cataclysmic series of events that saw nineteen people executed and over 150 imprisoned, including a young girl of five. Unless you're a Salem-completist like me, I can't recommend this one. On the Puritan attitude toward lies see Hansen, Witchcraft at Salem, chap. ~ Her importance for the ensuing events lies not in the occult activities that she supposedly inspired before 1692 but in the content and impact of her confession in March of that year. Whites assumed that anyone with any African features was a Negro.