However, employees can be most productive when their work goals align with their higher-level needs. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation is gone. Theory Y manager will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing themselves. The Douglas McGregor biography describes one of the most influential management theorists as a man whose revolutionary insights into the nature of leadership and management changed the relationship between managers and employees, paving the way for best practices implemented by some of today's most successful companies.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics and Social Science. Even conventional notions of productivity are meaningless with reference to the creative intellectual effort. The construction company I worked for was called Sierra Construction Company which is one of the leading construction contractors in Sri Lanka. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. As Latham and Budworth 2007 noted, however, McGregor articulated these ideas in a way that few others could. They tend to blame employees in most situations, without questioning the systems, policy, or lack of training which could be the real cause of failures.
This theory can be shown as pyramid. Such managers are likely to use more of a command and control approach with their employees. Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. In contrast, Theory Y managers assume employees are self-directed, enjoy responsibility and meaningful work, and are willing to work for organizational goals or causes they believe in. According to these theorists, since groups provide members with feelings of acceptance and dignity, management can look upon the workgroup as a potentially productive force.
In that project, behavioral scientists were invited to a large plant to help explain some employee behavior phenomena which were baffling to the managers. Description of Theory X In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. Psychological Review, 42 3 , 246. Theory X managers and Theory Y managers often see their perceptions of people confirmed. Work is as natural as play and therefore people desire to work.
Under Theory Z management, not only do workers have a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers, they also develop a sense of order, discipline, and a moral obligation to work hard. Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. This is the level which is the fulfillment of personal potential. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything seems bleak. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated.
Theory X, the accepted model at the time, assumed that workers were drones, without ambition or initiative who had to be punished and bullied by bosses to achieve results. Many of the principles of Theory Y are widely adopted by types of organization that value and encourage participation. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. There is no need for the system that involves rewards and punishments. He was deeply influenced by Abraham Maslow, and he adopted many of the ideas of other leading figures in the human relations school. Businessballs Ltd assumes no responsibility for any errors or damages arising. Therefore managers need not have only to interact with their subordinates as human beings.
Theory X and Theory Y pertain to employee motivation and have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior analysis, and organizational development. The average employee is lazy, shuns responsibility, is not ambitious, needs direction and principally desires security. The Japanese had discovered something that was giving them the competitive edge. According to McGregor, managers adopting Theory X assume that workers generally dislike work ad must be forced to do their jobs. A new comer always needs his job for satisfying himself by getting food and shelter which is a psychological need. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. According to the Behavioral Management Theories; a business organization as a psycho-social system with much emphasis on the human side.
These two opposing perceptions theorized how people view human behavior at work and organizational life: Theory X With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control employees. Get price quotes Finance Human Resources Marketing Technology Management Theory of Douglas McGregorBy Jeanne Dininni Business. Preeti Yadav Akshay Karnwal B. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion. Employees can be innovative in solving organizational problems.
Theory Y Theory Y expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. There are many theories of motivation proposed by various psychologists. S See also the article about building self-confidence, and assertiveness techniques. If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs. To McGregor, motivation seemed more likely with the Theory Y model. Employees will cooperate if they feel their basic needs for income and security will be met. The drive may come from an internal or external source.